Global Cloud Reachability Measurements

On this website, we present the overview of our global cloud reachability measurement study. You can interact with our key results and download our datasets and code for your research.

When referencing this webpage, please cite our WebConf 2021 and IMC 2021 paper.
                    author= {Corneo, Lorenzo and Eder, Maximilian and Mohan, Nitinder and Zavodovski, Aleksandr and Bayhan, Suzan and Wong, Walter and Gunningberg, Per and Kangasharju, Jussi and Ott, Jörg},
                    title={{Surrounded by the Clouds}},
                    booktitle = {Proceedings of The Web Conference 2021},
                    publisher = {Association for Computing Machinery},
                    address = {New York, NY, USA},
                    url = {},
                    doi = {10.1145/3442381.3449854},
                    series = {WWW '21}
                    author= {Dang, The Khang and Mohan, Nitinder and Corneo, Lorenzo and Zavodovski, Aleksandr and Ott, Jörg and Kangasharju, Jussi},
                    title={{Cloudy with a Chance of Short RTTs: Analyzing Cloud Connectivity in the Internet}},
                    booktitle = {Proceedings of Internet Measurement Conference},
                    publisher = {Association for Computing Machinery},
                    address = {New York, NY, USA},
                    url = {},
                    doi = {10.1145/3487552.3487854},
                    series = {IMC '21}
For more details on all associated research within this project, check out Publications section.


The motivation for this project came from our desire to provide a reality-check on motivations of edge computing. Being researchers in edge computing domain, we frequently come across the phrase "cloud is too far away to support latency requirements of next-generation applications" in almost all research articles/blogs.
Latency and bandwidth requirements of next-generation applications. Operation of most applications is governed by three strict latency thresholds.
The figure above shows approximate latency, bandwidth and expected market share of most hyped next-generation applications. We find that the latency requirements for most of these applications are governed by strict human vestibular thresholds: Motion-to-Photon (<20ms), Perceivable Latency (<100ms) and Human Reaction Time (<250ms).
*Refer to our ACM HotNets 2020 for more details on the next-generation application timing thresholds.

However, since 2010 there has been no wide-scale user-to-cloud measurement study to correlate if cloud can support the requirements of such applications. Since cloud computing landscape has evolved significantly since 2010, we sought out to launch global cloud reachability measurements -- quantizing latency (via Pings) and cloud network connectivity (via Traceroutes). The figure below shows the cloud providers (and their approximate compute cloud region location) that we target in our measurement.

Double-click on any cloud provider in legend to only show its datacenters. Hover over waypoints for more details on cloud regions.


We only show the highlights of our results on this website. For more detailed results and analysis, please refer to our Publications.

Cloud Support for Next-Generation Application Latency Thresholds

Global coverage for supporting the timing thresholds. Select the different threshold values from drop-down to see what percentile of measurements from each country supports it.

Global Cloud Access Latency

Distribution of latencies per continent to closest datacenter.

Latency performance of cloud providers in different continents

Country-wise Cloud Access Latency

Disclaimer: The interactive plot is a large file and can be heavy to display on some browsers. Keep scrolling for some static results.

Latency distribution in US primary statistical areas weighted by normalized population.

Latency distribution in some Asian countries with and without in-country datacenters.


RIPE Atlas Platform

We use 8000+ RIPE Atlas probes deployed in 184 countries to periodically measure user-to-cloud latency (ping) and path length (traceroute) over ICMP and TCP. Find out more about RIPE Atlas probes and connectivity here.
Distribution of 8000+ Atlas probes used in our measurements
Link: MediaTUM
Size: 60GB+

Link: GitHub

Speedchecker Platform

To be out soon!


*Arranged in chronological order.

Cloudy with a Chance of Short RTTs: Analyzing Cloud Connectivity in the Internet
Authors: The Khang Dang*, Nitinder Mohan*, Lorenzo Corneo, Aleksandr Zavodovski, Jörg Ott, Jussi Kangasharju (* joint first authors)
Publication Venue: 21st ACM Internet Measurement Conference (IMC) - 2021
Cloud computing has seen continuous growth over the last decade. The recent rise in popularity of next-generation applications brings forth the question: “Can current cloud infrastructure support the low latency requirements of such apps?” Specifically, the interplay of wireless last-mile and investments of cloud operators in setting up direct peering agreements with ISPs globally to current cloud reachability and latency has remained largely unexplored. This paper investigates the state of end-user to cloud connectivity over wireless media through extensive measurements over six months. We leverage 115,000 wireless probes on the Speedchecker platform and 195 cloud regions from 9 well-established cloud providers. We evaluate the suitability of current cloud infrastructure to meet the needs of emerging applications and highlight various hindering pressure points. We also compare our results to a previous study over RIPE Atlas. Our key findings are: (i) the most impact on latency comes from the geographical distance to the datacenter; (ii) the choice of a measurement platform can significantly influence the results; (iii) wireless last-mile access contributes significantly to the overall latency, almost surpassing the impact of the geographical distance in many cases. We also observe that cloud providers with their own private network backbone and direct peering agreements with serving ISPs offer noticeable improvements in latency, especially in its consistency over longer distances.
Surrounded by the Clouds: A Comprehensive Cloud Reachability Study
Authors: Lorenzo Corneo, Maximilian Eder, Nitinder Mohan, Aleksandr Zavodovski, Suzan Bayhan, Walter Wong, Per Gunningberg, Jussi Kangasharju, Jörg Ott.
Publication Venue: 30th The Web Conference (WebConf) - 2021
Video DOI
In the early days of cloud computing, datacenters were sparsely deployed at distant locations far from end-users with high end-to-end communication latency. However, today's cloud datacenters have become more geographically spread, the bandwidth of the networks keeps increasing, pushing the end-users latency down. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive cloud reachability study as we perform extensive global client-to-cloud latency measurements towards 189 datacenters from all major cloud providers. We leverage the well-known measurement platform RIPE Atlas, involving up to 8500 probes deployed in heterogeneous environments, e.g., home and offices. Our goal is to evaluate the suitability of modern cloud environments for various current and predicted applications. We achieve this by comparing our latency measurements against known human perception thresholds and are able to draw inferences on the suitability of current clouds for novel applications, such as augmented reality. Our results indicate that the current cloud coverage can easily support several latency-critical applications, like cloud gaming, for the majority of the world’s population.
(How Much) Can Edge Computing Change Network Latency?
Authors: Lorenzo Corneo, Nitinder Mohan, Aleksandr Zavodovski, Walter Wong, Christian Rohner, Per Gunningberg, Jussi Kangasharju.
Publication Venue: 20th IFIP Networking Conference (Networking) - 2021
Edge computing aims to enable applications with stringent latency requirements, e.g., augmented reality, and tame the overwhelming data streams generated by IoT devices. A core of this paradigm is to bring the computation from a distant cloud closer to service consumers and data producers. Consequentially, the issue of edge computing facilities' placement arises. We present a comprehensive analysis suggesting where to place general-purpose edge computing resources on an Internet-wide scale. We base our conclusions on extensive real-world network measurements. We perform extensive traceroute measurements from RIPE Atlas to datacenters in the US, resulting in a graph of 11K routers. We identify the affiliations of the routers to determine the network providers that can act as edge providers. We devise several edge placement strategies and show that they can improve cloud access latency by up to 30%.
Pruning Edge Research with Latency Shears
Authors: Nitinder Mohan, Lorenzo Corneo, Aleksandr Zavodovski, Suzan Bayhan, Walter Wong, Jussi Kangasharju.
Publication Venue: 19th ACM Workshop on Hot Topics in Networks (HotNets) - 2020
Video DOI
Edge computing has gained attention from both academia and industry by pursuing two significant challenges: 1) moving latency critical services closer to the users, 2) saving network bandwidth by aggregating large flows before sending them to the cloud. While the rationale appeared sound at its inception almost a decade ago, several current trends are impacting it. Clouds have spread geographically reducing end-user latency, mobile phones? computing capabilities are improving, and network bandwidth at the core keeps increasing. In this paper, we scrutinize edge computing, examining its outlook and future in the context of these trends. We perform extensive client-to-cloud measurements using RIPE Atlas, and show that latency reduction as motivation for edge is not as persuasive as once believed; for most applications the cloud is already 'close enough' for majority of the world's population. This implies that edge computing may only be applicable for certain application niches, as opposed to a general-purpose solution.


Nitinder Mohan: mohan [AT]


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Website design inspired from IPv6 hitlist and Designed by Maximilian Eder and Nitinder Mohan.